NYU Stern

Talking About Time: Effects of Temporal Planning and
Time Awareness Norms on Group Coordination and Performance


Planning is often central to effective coordination and task performance in work groups. Although planning pertains to efforts aimed at establishing objectives, generating subtasks and creating role or task assignments, it also encompasses discussions about time and temporal issues. This paper highlights the importance of “temporal planning” in groups, especially as it relates to effective coordination and task performance. Specifically, the results of a survey study of 48 self-managing project groups revealed that higher levels of initial temporal planning contribute to the formation of group norms that emphasize awareness of and attention to time. These “time awareness norms” were found to mediate the effect of temporal planning on coordination and task performance.